Category Archives: Kidney/renal


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Sometimes kidneys are no longer able to filter and clean blood. This can cause unsafe levels of waste products to build up. This is known as kidney or renal failure.

Unless it is treated, this can cause death. Female Urinary Tract. The kidneys are 2 bean-shaped organs, each about the size of a fist. They are found in your back on either side of the spine.


Healthy kidneys clean waste products from the blood by making urine. They also balance the amount of certain elements in your blood such as sodium, potassium, and calciumand make hormones that control blood pressure and red blood cells. Kidney renal failure is when kidneys don't work as well as they should.


The term "kidney failure" covers a lot of problems. These problems can result in kidney failure:.People w ith compromised kidney function must adhere to a renal or kidney diet to cut down on the amount of waste in their blood. Wastes in the blood come from food and liquids that are consumed. When kidney function is compromised, the kidneys not filter or remove waste properly.

Following a kidney diet may also help promote kidney function and slow the progression of complete kidney failure. A renal diet is one that is low in sodium, phosphorous, and protein.

A renal diet also emphasizes the importance of consuming high-quality protein and usually limiting fluids. Some patients may also need to limit potassium and calcium. What is Sodium and its role in the body? Sodium is a mineral found in most natural foods. Most people think of salt and sodium as interchangeable.

Salt, however, is actually a compound of sodium and chloride. Foods we eat may contain salt or they may contain sodium in other forms. Processed foods often contain higher levels of sodium due to added salt.

Sodium contributes to:. Too much sodium can be harmful for people with kidney disease because their kidneys cannot adequately eliminate excess sodium and fluid from the body.

As sodium and fluid build up in the tissues and bloodstream, they may cause:. Potassium is a mineral found in many of the foods we eat and is also found naturally in the body. Potassium plays a role in keeping the heartbeat regular and the muscles working correctly. Potassium is also necessary for maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance in the bloodstream.

The kidneys help to keep the right amount of potassium in your body and they expel excess amounts into the urine. When the kidneys fail, they can no longer remove excess potassium, so potassium levels build up in the body.

High potassium in the blood is called hyperkalemia which can cause:. When the kidneys no longer regulate potassium, a patient must monitor the amount of potassium that enters the body.Jump to navigation. Care is provided with an integrated, comprehensive, patient and family centered focus by a team of physicians, advance practice providers, nurses, dietitians, pharmacists, social workers, child-life specialists, psychologists, and quality of life leaders.

We are one of the few pediatric centers in the United States that offers MARS therapy for children with liver failure or drug ingestions. The End-Stage Renal Disease ESRD program for children with chronic renal failure is one of the largest in the country and includes both dialysis and transplant services. The Dialysis Program offers chronic in-center hemodialysis, as well as home based peritoneal and hemodialysis. Kidney transplantation services provide transplantation from deceased donors and living related and unrelated donors.

The care teams include the multidisciplinary renal team, dialysis nurses and technicians, transplant coordinators, interventional radiologists, and dedicated transplant and dialysis access surgeons.

The Hypertension Clinic evaluates and treats children and teenagers with elevated blood pressure hypertension. This clinic is multidisciplinary and includes physicians, nurse practitioners, nurses, and dietitians.

The Kidney Stone Clinic is a multidisciplinary clinic for children with kidney stones. Learn more about the Rheumatology Clinic. The care team includes maternal fetal medicine and fetal intervention specialists, fetal care coordinators, urologists, nephrologists, and genetic counselors.

Care is provided both in outpatient and inpatient settings by our leading multidisciplinary team of nephrologists, pathologists, advanced practice nurses and other expert medical staff.

The Renal Genetics Clinic offers consultations and diagnostic evaluations for patients with inherited or genetic causes of renal disease. Google Tag Manager. Contact Us.

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Schedule an Appointment: Monday - Friday: a. Schedule Online. Related Services Kidney Stone Clinic. Kidney Transplant. Hypertension Clinic The Hypertension Clinic evaluates and treats children and teenagers with elevated blood pressure hypertension.

Recent Blog Posts. Emma's story: Living despite dysautonomia.Chronic kidney disease, also called chronic kidney failure, describes the gradual loss of kidney function. Your kidneys filter wastes and excess fluids from your blood, which are then excreted in your urine.

When chronic kidney disease reaches an advanced stage, dangerous levels of fluid, electrolytes and wastes can build up in your body. In the early stages of chronic kidney disease, you may have few signs or symptoms. Chronic kidney disease may not become apparent until your kidney function is significantly impaired. Treatment for chronic kidney disease focuses on slowing the progression of the kidney damage, usually by controlling the underlying cause. Chronic kidney disease can progress to end-stage kidney failure, which is fatal without artificial filtering dialysis or a kidney transplant.

Chronic kidney disease care at Mayo Clinic. Signs and symptoms of chronic kidney disease develop over time if kidney damage progresses slowly. Signs and symptoms of kidney disease may include:.

Signs and symptoms of kidney disease are often nonspecific, meaning they can also be caused by other illnesses. Because your kidneys are highly adaptable and able to compensate for lost function, signs and symptoms may not appear until irreversible damage has occurred. If you have a medical condition that increases your risk of kidney disease, your doctor is likely to monitor your blood pressure and kidney function with urine and blood tests during regular office visits.

Ask your doctor whether these tests are necessary for you. A normal kidney has about 1 million filtering units. Each unit, called a glomerulus, connects to a tubule, which collects urine. Conditions such as high blood pressure and diabetes take a toll on kidney function by damaging these filtering units and collecting tubules and causing scarring. A healthy kidney left eliminates waste from the blood and maintains the body's normal chemical balance.

Fluid-filled sacs rightcalled cysts, characterize polycystic kidney disease. Chronic kidney disease occurs when a disease or condition impairs kidney function, causing kidney damage to worsen over several months or years. Chronic kidney disease can affect almost every part of your body.

Potential complications may include:. Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. Advertising revenue supports our not-for-profit mission.

This content does not have an English version. This content does not have an Arabic version. Overview Chronic kidney disease, also called chronic kidney failure, describes the gradual loss of kidney function.

Request an Appointment at Mayo Clinic.Kidney cancer begins in the kidneys. Your kidneys are two bean-shaped organs, each about the size of your fist. They're located behind your abdominal organs, with one kidney on each side of your spine.

In adults, renal cell carcinoma is the most common type of kidney cancer — about 90 percent of cancerous tumors. Other less common types of kidney cancer can occur. Young children are more likely to develop a kind of kidney cancer called Wilms' tumor.

The incidence of kidney cancer seems to be increasing. One reason for this may be the fact that imaging techniques such as computerized tomography CT scans are being used more often. These tests may lead to the accidental discovery of more kidney cancers. In many cases, kidney cancer is found at an early stage, when the tumors are small and confined to the kidney, making them easier to treat. Kidney cancer care at Mayo Clinic. Kidney cancer rarely causes signs or symptoms in its early stages.

And currently there are no routine tests used to screen for kidney cancer in the absence of symptoms. In the later stages, kidney cancer signs and symptoms may include:. Make an appointment with your doctor if you have any persistent signs or symptoms that worry you.

It's not clear what causes renal cell cancer, the most common form of kidney cancer, though there are several risk factors. Doctors know that kidney cancer begins when some kidney cells acquire mutations in their DNA. The mutations tell the cells to grow and divide rapidly. The accumulating abnormal cells form a tumor that can extend beyond the kidney.

Some cells can break off and spread metastasize to distant parts of the body. Taking steps to improve your health may help reduce your risk of kidney cancer. To reduce your risk, try to:. Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. Advertising revenue supports our not-for-profit mission. This content does not have an English version. This content does not have an Arabic version. Overview Kidney cancer Open pop-up dialog box Close. Kidney cancer Kidney cancer is cancer that begins in the cells of your kidneys.

Request an Appointment at Mayo Clinic. Share on: Facebook Twitter. National Comprehensive Cancer Network. Atkins MG. Clinical manifestations, evaluation, and staging of renal cell carcinoma. Accessed Feb. American Cancer Society.


What is kidney cancer?Kidney stones form in your kidneys. As stones move into your ureters — the thin tubes that allow urine to pass from your kidneys to your bladder — signs and symptoms can result. Signs and symptoms of kidney stones can include severe pain, nausea, vomiting, fever, chills and blood in your urine. The female urinary system — which includes your kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra — is responsible for removing waste from your body through urine.

Your kidneys, located in the rear portion of your upper abdomen, produce urine by filtering waste and fluid from your blood. The male urinary system — which includes your kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra — is responsible for removing waste from your body through urine. Kidney stones renal lithiasis, nephrolithiasis are hard deposits made of minerals and salts that form inside your kidneys. Kidney stones have many causes and can affect any part of your urinary tract — from your kidneys to your bladder.

Often, stones form when the urine becomes concentrated, allowing minerals to crystallize and stick together. Passing kidney stones can be quite painful, but the stones usually cause no permanent damage if they're recognized in a timely fashion. Depending on your situation, you may need nothing more than to take pain medication and drink lots of water to pass a kidney stone.

What is Kidney (Renal) Failure?

In other instances — for example, if stones become lodged in the urinary tract, are associated with a urinary infection or cause complications — surgery may be needed.

Your doctor may recommend preventive treatment to reduce your risk of recurrent kidney stones if you're at increased risk of developing them again. Kidney stone care at Mayo Clinic. A kidney stone may not cause symptoms until it moves around within your kidney or passes into your ureter — the tube connecting the kidney and bladder. At that point, you may experience these signs and symptoms:. Pain caused by a kidney stone may change — for instance, shifting to a different location or increasing in intensity — as the stone moves through your urinary tract.

Kidney stones often have no definite, single cause, although several factors may increase your risk. Kidney stones form when your urine contains more crystal-forming substances — such as calcium, oxalate and uric acid — than the fluid in your urine can dilute.

At the same time, your urine may lack substances that prevent crystals from sticking together, creating an ideal environment for kidney stones to form. Knowing the type of kidney stone helps determine the cause and may give clues on how to reduce your risk of getting more kidney stones. If possible, try to save your kidney stone if you pass one so that you can bring it to your doctor for analysis.If it worsens, persists or fever developes; I will head to the Doctor.

This hurts and is tender to touch but does not bring on sharp pain when touched, sharp pain comes and goes after taking pain relief A. Go to see a doctor - although its tempting to make the diagnosis over the net I have several ideas about what it might beit sounds like serious, especially if you had a PE lately - it could be a thrombus in the vein of the kidney, or maybe a stone sounds like that according to the description of the pain.

However, as I said, making the diagnosis without even seeing you isn't the wisest thing to do. Take care. The most commonly used is the creatinine clearance test, which is a measure of the glomerular filtration rate. This affects most of the body's systems because of its important role in maintaining fluid balance, regulating the electrochemical composition of body fluids, providing constant protection against acid-base imbalance, and controlling blood pressure.

Called also kidney failure. Acute renal failure occurs suddenly and may be caused by physical trauma, infection, inflammation, or exposure to nephrotoxic chemicals. Nephrotoxic agents include drugs such as penicillinssulfonamidesaminoglycosidesand tetracyclines ; radiographic iodine contrast materials; and heavy metals. These agents inflict damage on the renal tubules, causing tubular necrosis, and may also indirectly harm the tubules by producing severe vasoconstriction of renal blood vessels with ischemia of kidney tissue.

Other causes of tubular ischemia include circulatory collapse, severe dehydration, and hypotension in certain compromised surgical patients. Acute renal failure may be classified as: prerenal, associated with poor systemic perfusion and decreased renal blood flow; intrarenal, associated with renal ischemia or toxins; or postrenal, resulting from the obstruction of urine flow out of the kidneys.

Other symptoms besides a marked decrease in urinary output are related to fluid and electrolyte imbalances, anemia, hypertension, and uremia. In addition to supportive measures to restore and maintain a tolerable internal environment during acute renal failure, it may be necessary to remove toxic wastes by hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis. Chronic renal failure is a progressive loss of kidney function that may eventually progress to end-stage renal disease.

The clinical course is described in four stages.

What is Kidney (Renal) Trauma?

First there is decreased renal reserve, with diminishing renal function but without accumulation of the end products of protein metabolism; the patient has no symptoms. In the second stage, renal insufficiency, the glomerular filtration rate GFR is depressed to about 30 ml per minute and plasma chemistry begins to show abnormalities as waste products accumulate. The third stage, frank renal failure, is characterized by steadily rising serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen levels accompanying a drop in the GFR.

The fourth and final stage is uremia ; levels of protein end products continue to rise, residual urine function is less than 15 per cent, and all body systems are impaired.

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